LIGHT CRUDE OIL

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Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature. [1] It has a low viscosity, low specific gravity and high API gravity due to the presence of a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions. [2] It generally has a low wax content. Light crude oil receives a higher price than heavy crude oil on commodity markets because it produces a higher percentage of gasoline and diesel fuel when converted into products by an oil refinery.
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HEAVY CRUDE OIL

HEAVY CRUDE OIL

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Heavy crude oil or extra heavy crude oil is oil that is highly viscous, and cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions. It is referred to as "heavy" because its density or specific gravity is higher than that of light crude oil. Heavy crude oil has been defined as any liquid petroleum with API gravity less than 20°. (more…)
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GAS CONDENSATE

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Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields. It condenses out of the raw gas if the temperature is reduced to below the hydrocarbon dew point temperature of the raw gas. The natural gas condensate is also referred to as simply condensate, or gas condensate, or sometimes natural gasoline because it contains hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range. Raw natural gas may come from any one of three types of gas wells: Crude oil wells Raw natural gas that comes from crude oil wells is called associated gas. This gas can exist separate from the crude oil in the underground formation, or dissolved in the crude oil. Condensate produced from oil wells…
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LPG

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Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as auto gas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane (C3H8), primarily butane (C4H10) and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted…
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DIESEL FUEL

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In general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture (without spark) and then injection of fuel. Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic and thus fuel efficiencies. This is particularly noted where diesel engines are run at part-load; as their air supply is not throttled as in a petrol engine, their efficiency still remains hig
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METHANOL

METHANOL

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Also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol acquired the name "wood alcohol" because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Modern methanol is produced in a catalytic industrial process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).[5] However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid, and is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol. It is also used for producing biodiesel via transesterification reaction. Methanol is…
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ETHANOL

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Commonly referred to simply as alcohol or spirits, ethanol is also called ethyl alcohol. It is a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs used by humans. It can cause alcohol intoxication when consumed in sufficient quantity. Beyond being consumed, it is used as a solvent, as an antiseptic, as a fuel and as the active fluid in modern (post-mercury) thermometers. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with the structural formula CH3CH2OH, often abbreviated as C2H5OH. Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) for a molecule with two carbon atoms having a single bond between them ,and an attached functional group-OH group. The name ethanol was coined as a result of a resolution that was adopted at the…
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Benzene

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Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. Its molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring, with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. Because its molecules contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, and is one of the most elementary petrochemicals. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, a cyclic hydrocarbon with a continuous pi bond. It is sometimes abbreviated Ph–H. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell. It is mainly used as a precursor to heavy chemicals, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, which are produced on a billion kilogram scale. Because it has a high octane number, it is an important component of gasoline,…
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XYLENE

XYLENE

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  A xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood") is an aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl substituents. The three isomeric xylenes each have a molecular formula of C8H10, though the more informative semi-structural formula C6H4(CH3)2 is also used commonly. The xylenes are major petrochemicals, produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. Representing about 0.5–1% of crude oil (depending on the source), xylenes are found in small quantities in gasoline and airplane fuels. Xylenes are mainly produced as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as "reformate". The mixture is a slightly greasy, colourless liquid commonly encountered as a solvent. It was named in 1851, having been discovered as…
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HDPE

HDPE

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HDPE is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. It is known for its large strength to density ratio. The density of high-density polyethylene can range from 0.93 to 0.97 g/cm3. Although the density of HDPE is only marginally higher than that of low-density polyethylene, HDPE has little branching, giving it stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength than LDPE. The difference in strength exceeds the difference in density, giving HDPE a higher specific strength. It is also harder and more opaque and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures (120 °C/ 248 °F for short periods, 110 °C /230 °F continuously). High-density polyethylene, unlike polypropylene, cannot withstand normally required autoclaving conditions. The lack of branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst. HDPE is resistant to many different solvents and has a…
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